VARIATION METRICS IN ECHO
“ECHO basic methods” is composed of a series of methodological “pills” containing the most frequent analytical concepts and techniques used in ECHO.
ECHO methods are firstly meant to determine the magnitude of a phenomenon within a unit of analysis and then, estimate the variation of the phenomenon across units of analysis - systematic and unwarranted variation in a set of healthcare performance indicators across healthcare providers.
Since ECHO applies twodifferent approaches, geographic and hospital-specific,this document will detail both separately.
• Unwarranted variation: variation not explained by differences in population or patient illness, need or preferences.
• Healthcare providers: either healthcare geographic areas (e.g. administrative areas, hospital catchment areas) or hospitals.
• Performance indicators: set of ECHO indicators describing effectiveness – equity in access, quality, safety, and efficiency.